Tuesday, February 25, 2014

Vocabulary: Words starting with A (11-20)

List 11-20

11. Abrogate


early 16th cent.: from Latin abrogat- ‘repealed’, from the verb abrogare, from ab- ‘away, from’ + rogare ‘propose a law’.
Meaning in English: revoke formally, put an end to, to abolish by formal or official means
Meaning in Hindi: रद्द करना, निरस्त करना, अभिनिषेध करना
Usage in Sentence:
"Government abrogated the strike."
"To abrogate the law."
Synonyms: repudiate, repeal, void, invalidate, nullify, overrule, negate, reject, cancel, abolish.
Antonyms: permit, sanction, pass, approve, ratify.
Mnemonic: abrogate = ab + rog(disease)  + ate. Means eat the disease and abolish it.

12. Animosity


late Middle English (originally in the sense ‘spirit, courage’): from Old French animosite or late Latin animositas, from animosus ‘spirited’, from Latin animus ‘spirit, mind’. The current sense dates from the early 17th cent.

Meaning in English: a feeling of strong dislike, strong hostility, active enmity.
Meaning in Hindi: शत्रुता, द्वेष, दुश्मनी, दुश्मनी की भावना
Usage in Sentence:
"Nisha has animosity towards her neighbor."
Synonyms: antipathy, hostility, friction, rancour,  ill will, enmity, malice, displeasure.
Antonyms: friendship, goodwill, happiness, respect, like.
Mnemonic: animosity sounds like enemy. If someone is your enemy, you tends to have ill will towards him.

13. Animus


early 19th cent.: from Latin, ‘spirit, mind’.
Meaning in English:
-  feeling of strong dislike, hostility, ill feeling, animosity.
-  Motivation to do something.
Meaning in Hindi: विरोधपूर्ण भावना, शत्रुता, वैर भाव
Usage in Sentence:
"the author's animus towards her"
Synonyms: antipathy, hostility, friction, rancour,  ill will, enmity, malice, displeasure.
Antonyms: friendship, goodwill, happiness, respect, like.
Mnemonic: Its like Enemy + us ie our enemy have ill will towards us.

14. Annals


mid 16th cent.: from Latin annales (libri) ‘yearly (books)’, from annus ‘year’.

Meaning in English: records arranged in yearly parts, records of events of one years, historical records.
Meaning in Hindi: वार्षिकवृतान्त, वर्षक्रमिक इतिहास, वर्णक्रम से लिखा हुआ इतिहास
Usage in Sentence:
"The annals of Mughal wars are kept at museum in New Delhi."
Synonyms: history, journal, archives, records.
Mnemonic: Annals sounds like annual. It is annual records of something.s

15. Anneal            


Old English onǣlan, from on + ǣlan ‘burn, bake’ from āl ‘fire, burning’. The original sense was ‘set on fire’, hence (in late Middle English) ‘subject to fire, alter by heating’.

Meaning in English:
-  to free from internal stress by heating and gradual cooling.
-  to toughen
Meaning in Hindi: तपाना
Usage in Sentence:
"Copper tubes are annealed after bending."
Synonyms: harden, thicken, temper, toughen.
Antonyms: liquefy, soften, weaken.
Mnemonic: To make NAAL (horse shoe). You have to heat iron and then cool it to get tough horse shoe.

16. Annex


late Middle English: from Old French annexer, from Latin annectere ‘connect’, from ad- ‘to’ + nectere ‘tie, fasten’.

Meaning in English:
-  to attach, add or append to something large.
-  building added to larger one, an addition to document.
Meaning in Hindi: पूरक अंश, जोड़ना, शामिल करना
Usage in Sentence:
"Amendments were annexed to the constitution."
Synonyms: add, append, attach, affix, subsidiary
Antonyms: subtract, lessen.
Mnemonic: annex = a + next. Something added next to something.

17. Annihilate


late Middle English (originally as an adjective meaning ‘destroyed, annulled’): from late Latin annihilatus ‘reduced to nothing’, from the verb annihilare, from ad- ‘to’ + nihil ‘nothing’. The sense ‘destroy utterly’ dates from the mid 16th cent.

Meaning in English:
-  destroy utterly, defeat utterly
-  to annul, make void.
Meaning in Hindi: मिटा देना, संहार करना, सर्वनाश करना
Usage in Sentence:
"Our cricket team annihilated the visiting team."
“The nuclear attack annihilated the city.”
Synonyms: wipe out, extinguish, abolish, erase, abrogate, wreck, expunge.
Antonyms: create, ratify, preserve, revive.
Mnemonic: Remember annihilate like eliminate something from life.

18. Annotate


late 16th cent.: from Latin annotat- ‘marked’, from the verb annotare, from ad- ‘to’ + nota ‘a mark’.
Meaning in English: to provide/make explanatory note, comment, add notes to text or diagram giving explanation or comment.
Meaning in Hindi: टिप्पणी करना, भाष्य करना
Usage in Sentence:

"To annotate the work of Kalidas."

Synonyms: comment, explain, interpret, explicate.

Antonyms: confuse, be vague, obscure.

Mnemonic: Remember like a + note = annotate. To make a note.

19. Annuity


late Middle English: from French annuité, from medieval Latin annuitas, from Latin annuus ‘yearly’, from annus ‘year’.

Meaning in English:

-  yearly allowance

- a fixed sum of money paid to someone annually, typically for rest of their life.

Meaning in Hindi: वार्षिक भत्ता या वृत्ति, वार्षिकी

Usage in Sentence:

"Neha’s father left her annuity of $1000 in his will."
Synonyms: gain, profit, income, wages, dividend.
Antonyms: loss, debt, misfortune.
Mnemonic: annuity = annual + duty. Annual duty gives you annual income.

20. Annul


late Middle English: from Old French anuller, from late Latin annullare, from ad- ‘to’ + nullum ‘nothing’.
Meaning in English: make void, declare invalid, declare (marriage) to have no legal existence, to reduce to nothing.
Meaning in Hindi: अन्त करना, निष्फल करना, रद्द करना, अमान्य घोषित करना
Usage in Sentence:
"Elections in Bangladesh were annulled amid protests."
Synonyms: nullify, invalidate, void, cancel, abolish, revoke, repeal, withdraw, erase, obliterate.
Antonyms: validate, approve, legalize, allow, enforce.
Mnemonic: annul = A +  null. Null means having no value or nothing ie void.

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